Sherkot, meaning the ‘Fort of Sher’, was founded during the reign of Sher Shah Suri, an Afghan ruler of the Sur Dynasty, who became the Emperor of North India between 1540 and 1545. Under the reign of Akbar, it was the main town of the pargana region and was attacked in 1805 by Muhammad Amir Khan, a Pathan invader. Later, during the Indian Rebellion of 1857 it was the scene of battle between loyalists and rebels. The first Battle of Sherkot took place on July 28, 1857 and the second on August 5.
Up to 1844, it was headquarters of the tehsil, or district and later became a part of the Dhampur tehsil. In 1901, it had a population of 14,999.